The basic engine components are described in this section.
- Cylinder block
- Cylinder head
- Pistons and connecting rods
- Timing case and gears
- Flywheel and flywheel housing
Exploded view of the cylinder block
(1) Cylinder block
(2) Thrust washer
Cylinder block (1) is made of cast iron with an integral crankcase. The four cylinders are arranged in-line. The sides of the block extend below the centerline of the crankshaft in order to provide added strength. The cylinder block provides full support for the length of the cylinder bores. The cylinder sleeves are integral with the cylinder block.
The journals of the camshaft run directly in the bores of the cylinder block. Thrust washer (2) is located at the rear of the block in order to control the end play of the crankshaft.
Exploded view of the cylinder head
(1) Valve mechanism cover
(2) Rocker shaft assembly
(3) Valve keepers
(4) Valve spring retainer
(5) Valve seal
(6) Valve spring
(7) Valve guide
(8) Cylinder head
(9) Cylinder head gasket
(10) Valve seat insert
The cast iron cylinder head (8) is fastened to the top of the cylinder block by seventeen bolts. A cylinder head gasket (9) is used between the engine block and the cylinder head in order to seal combustion gases, coolant, and oil. The inlet and exhaust ports are designed to improve air flow.
The cylinder head assembly has two overhead valves (11) for each cylinder. Each valve is held in place by a single valve spring (6), a valve spring retainer (4), and two valve keepers (3). The cylinder head has steel valve seat inserts (10) for both the inlet and exhaust valves. The valves move in steel valve guides (7). Each valve guide is equipped with a synthetic rubber valve seal (5). The exhaust valve guides have a counterbore in order to prevent seizure of the valve stem that is caused by a buildup of carbon underneath the head of the valve. Both the valve seat inserts and the valve guides can be renewed.
The overhead valves are operated by a rocker shaft assembly (2) that is installed under a valve mechanism cover (1). The forged steel rocker arms are operated by cold drawn pushrods with hardened heads. The rocker shaft is supported by four steel brackets that support the rocker shaft between each pair of valves. The rocker shaft assembly and valve components are lubricated by an oil flow from the hollow rocker shaft. The rocker shaft receives a reduced oil flow from the oil feed of the camshaft.
Valve lash is adjusted by adjustment screws and locknuts at the pushrod end of each rocker arm.
The valve mechanism cover also contains an oil fill cap and breather pipe.
Pistons and Connecting Rods
Exploded view of the piston and connecting rod
(1) Piston rings
(3) Piston pin
(4) Retaining rings
(5) Piston pin bearing
(6) Connecting rod
(7) Connecting rod bearing
Pistons (2) have a combustion chamber in the top of the piston. The piston crater ensures an efficient mix of fuel and air.
Piston rings (1) consist of two compression rings and an oil control ring. The groove in the piston for the top ring has a hard metal insert that reduces wear of the groove. The piston skirt has a layer of graphite in order to improve the wear characteristics. The fully floating piston pin (3) is held in an axial location by retaining rings (4). The piston pin is placed off-center in order to reduce the noise level.
Some engines are equipped with piston cooling jets. The piston cooling jets spray lubricating oil onto the inner surface of the piston in order to cool the piston.
The correct piston height is important in order to ensure that the piston does not contact the cylinder head and that the fuel has efficient combustion. The pistons and connecting rods (6) are matched to each cylinder.
The connecting rod and the connecting rod cap are machined on the surfaces in order to provide a smooth mating surface. The cap is held in position by a pair of bolts with nuts.
Exploded view of the crankshaft
(1) Main bearings
(3) Crankshaft gear
(4) Main bearing cap
(5) Thrust washers
Crankshaft (2) is forged from chrome molybdenum steel. The crankshaft has five main bearing journals and four connecting rod bearing journals. The flywheel is attached to the large flange at the rear of the crankshaft.
End play of the crankshaft is controlled by three thrust washers (5). Two thrust washers are located on both sides of the rear main bearing. The third thrust washer is located on the rear face of the cylinder block (Illustration 1).
Main bearings (1) have steel backs with an aluminum and tin bearing material. Main bearing caps (4) are made of cast iron.
Crankshaft gear (3) is held on the tapered shaft of the crankshaft by a pair of woodruff keys. The crankshaft pulley is held in position by a nut on the front of the crankshaft.
Exploded view of the camshaft
(1) Thrust washer
The engine has a single camshaft (2) that is made of cast iron. The camshaft has four sets of lobes. Each set of lobes controls the movement of the inlet and exhaust valves for each cylinder.
The camshaft is driven at the front end by the camshaft gear. As the camshaft rotates, the camshaft lobes move the valve system components. The valve system components move the cylinder valves.
The camshaft gear must be timed to the crankshaft gear. The relationship between the lobes of the camshaft and the camshaft gear causes the valves in each cylinder to open at the correct time. The camshaft gear is held on the tapered shaft of the camshaft by a woodruff key.
End play of the camshaft is controlled by thrust washer (1) that is mounted in front of the camshaft. The thrust washer is held in place by two bolts in the cylinder block.
Timing Case and Gears
Exploded view of the timing case and gears
(1) Camshaft gear
(2) Fuel injection pump gear
(3) Upper idler gear
(4) Crankshaft front seal
The timing case is constructed of either aluminum or cast iron. The timing case cover contains crankshaft front seal (4) .
The timing gears are made of steel. The crankshaft gear (not shown) drives an upper idler gear (3). The upper idler gear drives camshaft gear (1), fuel injection pump gear (2), and the oil pump gear (not shown).
The camshaft and the fuel injection pump run at half the speed of the crankshaft. The oil pump runs at three quarters of the speed of the crankshaft.
Flywheel and Flywheel Housing
Exploded view of the flywheel and flywheel housing
(2) Flywheel housing
(3) Crankshaft rear seal
Flywheel (4) and flywheel housing (2) are made of cast iron. The flywheel housing contains crankshaft rear seal (3) .