ENGINE INSTALLATION & SERVICE HANDBOOK General Rules of Thumb Caterpillar


General Rules of Thumb
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1.1. English Units
2.2. Air Compressors:
3.2. AMA HP for U.S.A. Tax Purposes:
4.2. Brake Mean Effective Pressure:
5.2. Conveyors: 15 to 20° incline.
6.2. Cooling:
7.2. Electricity:
8.2. Electric Sets:
9.2. Fuel Consumption
10.2. Gas Compressor:
11.2. Heat Rejection
12.2. Hours Per:
13.2. Oilfield Drilling:
14.2. On Site Power Requirements:
15.2. Pumps:
16.2. Refrigeration
17.2. Sawmill:
18.2. Propellor Shaft Size Selection:
19.2. Shovels and Draglines:
20.2. Torque Converters:
21.2. Ventilation:
22.1. Metric Units
23.2. Air Compressors:
24.2. AMA Power for U.S.A. Tax Purposes:
25.2. Brake Mean Effective Pressure:
26.2. Cooling:
27.2. Electricity:
28.2. Electric Sets:
29.2. Fuel Consumption
30.2. Gas Compressor:
31.2. Heat Rejection:
32.2. Hours Per:
33.2. Oilfield Drilling:
34.2. On Site Power Requirements:
35.2. Pumps:
36.2. Refrigeration:
37.2. Sawmill:
38.2. Shaft Size Selection:
39.2. Torque Converters:
40.2. Ventilation:
41.1. English to Metric Conversion Factor
42.1. Energy
43.1. Power
44.1. Length
45.1. Volume and Capacity
46.1. Weight
47.1. Angle
48.1. Pressure and Head
49.1. Flow
50.1. Area
51.1. Temperature Conversion

English Units

Air Compressors:

BHP = 1/4 × cu. ft. per minute at 100 psi

Increase BHP 10% for 125 psi

Decrease BHP 10% for 80 psi

AMA HP for U.S.A. Tax Purposes:

Where: N = No. of Cylinders

D = Piston Diameter in inches

Brake Mean Effective Pressure:

Conveyors: 15 to 20° incline.

Cooling:

Heat Exchanger Flow Rate

Raw water to jacket water 1:1 to 2:1

Submerged Pipe Cooling

1/2 Sq. ft. surface area per HP

With 85°F flowing raw water

Electricity:

Generator Capacity Required:

Motors:

1 kW per nameplate HP (motor running cool or warm to touch)

11/4 kW per nameplate HP (motor running hot to touch)

Horsepower Requirements:

11/2 BHP per kW of load or

Electric Sets:

Motor Starting Requirements:

Inrush kVa (Code F motor) = 5.5 × BHP

Inrush Current (Code F motor)= 6.2 × Full load rated current

1 kVa per HP at full load

Generator full load rated current capacity:

Generator Cooling Requirements:

Air Flow - 150°CFM per kW loss × efficiency

Circuit Breaker Trip Selection:

1.15 to 1.25 × full load generator amp rating

Single Phase Rating of 3-Phase Generator:

60% of 3-phase rating

Generator Temperature Rise:

Increase 1°C for each 330 feet above 3300 feet

Fuel Consumption

Gas Compressor:

BHP = 22 RcVS

Where: Rc = Stage Compression Ratio

V = Million cu. ft./day

S = Number of Stages

Heat Rejection

% of Fuel Energy Consumed

Jacket Water

Prechambered engines

BTU/min = 36 × BHP

Direct injection engines

BTU/min = 27 × BHP

Hours Per:

Year = 8760 (365 Days)

Week = 168 (7 Days)

Month = 720 (30 Days)

Oilfield Drilling:

Hoisting

Mud Pumps

Rotary Table

On Site Power Requirements:

Based on 100,000 sq. ft. of office bldg., etc., and 40°N. latitudes

Electric Requirements:

600 kW continuous load

(air conditioning is absorption)

Use three - 300 kW units (2 prime and 1 standby)

Air Conditioning Compressor

400 tons prime load

Use two - 200 HP engines (No standby)

Pumps:

Pipe Line BHP = Barrels per hour × psi × 0.00053


*Efficiency

Refrigeration

One ton refrigeration = 200 BTU/Min. = 12,000 BTU/Hr.

One boiler HP = 33,475 BTU/Hr.

One ton compressor rating = One Engine HP

Auxiliary air conditioning equipment requires 1/4 HP per ton of compressor rating

Ice Plant:

Complete power requires 4-5 HP per daily ton capacity

Sawmill:

11/2 BHP per inch of saw diameter at 500 RPM

Increase or decrease in proportion to RPM

Swing Cut-Off Saw

Table Trimmer 71/2 to 10 BHP

Blower Fan 12-foot sawdust 3 to 5 BHP

Planer Mill 2 to 4 BHP per 100 board feet per hour 24 to 30-inch planers 15 to 25 BHP

Edgers

Approximate fuel consumption:

Softwood 1 gal. per 1000 board feet

Hardwood 1 gal. per 750 board feet

Propellor Shaft Size Selection:

For intermediate shaft and tailshaft in marine installations

Where: D = Diameter in inches

HP = Horsepower

S = Torsional stress in PSI (usually 5000)

Shovels and Draglines:

Use manufacturer's recommendations.

Torque: (4 cycle only)

Torque Converters:

Peak output shaft horsepower:

Normally 80% of input horsepower for either single or three-stage converter

Output shaft speed at peak output horsepower:

Single-stage - 0.7 to 0.85 engine full load speed

Three-stage - 0.5 to 0.6 engine full load speed

Torque multiplication at or near stall:

Single-stage - 2.2 to 3.4 times engine torque

Three-stage - 3.6 to 5.4 times engine torque

Ventilation:

Natural 1/2 net square inch for each BHP

Blown 1/3 net square inch for each BHP

Metric Units

Air Compressors:

110 kW = 1 m3/min @ 850 kPa

100 kW = 1 m3/min @ 675 kPa

90 kW = 1 m3/min @ 550 kPa

AMA Power for U.S.A. Tax Purposes:

Where: N = No. of Cylinders

D = Piston Diameter in millimeters

Brake Mean Effective Pressure:

Conveyors: 15 to 20° incline.

Cooling:

Heat Exchanger Flow Rate

Raw water to jacket water 1:1 to 2:1

Submerged Pipe Cooling

1 m2 surface area per 16 kW with 30°C flowing raw water

Electricity:

Generator Capacity Required:

Motors:

11/3 kW per nameplate kW (motor running cool or warm to touch)

12/3 kW per nameplate kW (motor running hot to touch)

Engine Power Requirements:

Electric Sets:

Motor Starting Requirements:

Inrush kVa (Code F motor) = 41/8 × nameplate kW

Inrush Current (Code F motor) = 6.2 × full load rated current

11/3 kVa per kW at full load

Generator full load rated current capacity:

Generator Cooling Requirements:

Air Flow = 41/4 m3 per kW loss × efficiency

Circuit Breaker Trip Selection:

1.15 to 1.25 × full load generator amp rating

Single Phase Rating of 3-Phase Generator:

60% of 3-Phase rating

Generator Temperature Rise:

Increase 1°C for each 100 meters above 1000 meters

Fuel Consumption

3


*33 720 kJ/m

Gas Compressor:

kW = 777 Rc VS

Where : Rc = Stage Compression Ratio

V = Millions cubic meters per day

S = Number of Stages

Heat Rejection:

Hours Per:

Year = 8760 (365 Days)

Week = 168 (7 Days)

Month = 720 (30 Days)

Oilfield Drilling:

Mud Pumps

Rotary Table

On Site Power Requirements:

Based on 10 000 m2 of office bldg., etc. and 40°N latitude.

Electric Requirements:

650 kW continuous load (air conditioning is absorption)

Use three units approximately 325 kW each (2 prime and 1 standby)

Air Conditioning Compressor:

325 kW prime load

Use two engines approximately 170 kW each (No standby)

Pumps:

Deep Well kW = (meters of lift × L/min × 4640)

Pipe Line kW = L/H × kPa × 2 775 000


*Efficiency

Refrigeration:

One ton refrigeration = 3.5 kW

One boiler hp = 9.8 kW

One ton compressor rating = 0.75 kW

Auxiliary air conditioning equipment requires 1/5 kW per ton of compressor rating

Ice Plant:

Complete power requires 3.25-4.25 kW per daily ton capacity

Sawmill:

1 kW per 20 to 25 mm saw diameter at 500 RPM

Increase or decrease in proportion to RPM

Swing Cut-Off Saw

Table Trimmer 51/2 to 71/2 kW

Blower Fan 4 meter sawdust 21/4 to 33/4 kW

Planer Mill 5-10 kW m3 per hour 600-750 mm planers 11 to 19 kW

Edgers

2 saws 9 to 11 kW

3 saws 11 to 19 kW

Slab saw 7.5 kW

Jack Ladder 7.5 kW

Approximate fuel consumption:

Shaft Size Selection:

For intermediate shaft and tailshaft in marine installations

Where: D = Diameter in millimeters

kW = Power in kilowatts

S = Torsional stress in MPa (usually 35)

Shovels and Draglines:

Use manufacturer's recommendations.

Torque: (4-cycle only)

Torque Converters:

Peak output shaft kilowatts:

Normally 80% of input power for either single or three stage converter

Output shaft speed at peak output kilowatts:

Single-stage - 0.7 to 0.85 engine full load speed

Three-stage - 0.5 to 0.6 engine full load speed

Torque multiplication at or near stall:

Single-stage - 2.2 to 3.4 times engine torque

Three-stage - 3.6 to 5.4 times engine torque

Ventilation:

Natural 41/2 cm2/kW

Blown 3 cm2/kW

English to Metric Conversion Factor

Energy

Power

Length

Volume and Capacity

Weight

Angle

Pressure and Head

Flow

Area

Temperature Conversion

Information System:

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